Galileo galilei biography in English



"Do you want to oppose and refute Aristotle's thoughts and beliefs. You are just a young man now and think that you know more than Aristotle?" People used to say to Galileo. Galileo was twenty-five years old at the time.

Aristotle had said that if the top ten weights and one ser weight were put on the ground, then the weight of ten ser would fall on the ground ten times faster than the weight of one ser. Nobody doubted this belief of Aristotle for about 1800 years. Aristotle's statement was a line of stone. Opposing Aristotle was a risk. In the seventeenth century, the Parliaments of Paris threatened to expel Aristotle's opponents, and the authorities of the famous Oxford University in England punished their professors for opposing the principles of the Greek philosopher.

Galileo said calmly - "Come and see!" He climbed the famous bowed tower of Pisa city with two shells - one ten ser and ten one ser. He left both the shells simultaneously. Surely both reached the ground together. Can more proof be given? Galileo was right. But his teachers were angry with this. He blamed the Galileans on the contrary, that by using black magic, he created visual impairment. Aristotle can never make a mistake! However, this performance earned Galilee considerable fame and he showed that Aristotle had made many more mistakes in science.

Galileo Galilei was born on February 18, 1564 AD in the city of Pisa, Italy. Galileo's father Visejo belonged to a reputed family, but his financial condition was poor in those days, so he had to spend his childhood in a poor family. The father was a musician, but living with this knowledge was not easy. So Visejo wanted to put Galileo into business. Seeing Galileo's interest in science, his father separated him from business. Galileo was admitted to the University of Pisa to study medicine. But only after hearing a lecture on geometry, he became convinced that mathematician is more interesting to him than medical science. Once outside, Galileo is said to have been seen by university officials listening to the inner math-lecture inside the door. Since then Galileo has been transferred from medicine to science and mathematics.

It was while studying at the university that he refused to accept Aristotle's words without reason. Galileo became famous as a brawler there. An incident happened at that time. Galileo was 18 at the time. One day he went to the church for prayer. He saw a lamp hanging from the ceiling of the church. The lamp burner left him shaking. Initially, the lamp used to move around very fast. But later the speed decreased and so did the distance difference. Galileo observed that the time it takes to move from side to side when the velocity of the lamp is high, the time it takes for the velocity to decrease and to move to and from a short distance. But how to prove the equality of time? Clocks were not invented until that time. Galileo counted his beats by placing his hands on the pulse to find out when the lamp was moving. On this occasion he got the idea of ​​one such machine so that the speed of pulse could be known. The pendulum of the future began here.

In 1585, Galileo had to leave the University of Pisa due to a financial crisis. His parents were now living in the city of Florence, so he moved to Florence. Here Galileo became so famous that he was appointed professor of Mathematics by his old University of Pisa. Galileo was 25 years old at this time. But due to his free thought, skeptical nature and bitter criticism, he soon turned hostile to the people. So within two years Galileo had to leave Pisa. He was then appointed as a mathematics professor at the university, where he continued to teach for 18 years.

Galileo had all kinds of facilities in Padua. His salary was also higher than before. He had to get up and sit with family members. Galileo never married according to social customs. He believed that a successful philosopher or scientist could not be a successful husband. Still, he was in love with a family woman named Marina Gamba. He also settled Marina in his house as a girlfriend and later had three children.

Although his salary kept increasing, his household expenses also increased in the same proportion. Hearing his fame in relation to Pisa, he started demanding money. His brother, who wanted to go to Poland for a job, hoped to get travel expenses from Galileo. His sister, who was caught in a fool's affair, wanted a good dowry from Galileo. In the end, Galileo had to earn a two-year advance salary from the university.

Despite all these difficulties, Galileo continued to pursue his scientific discoveries. Meanwhile, he established a club called 'Academy of the Exiled'. The scholars who came here from different parts of Italy used to get shelter for independent thinking. Galileo introduced many of his inventions to members of the same club. It was here that he threw light on the virtue of the magnet and the magnetic powers of the earth. It was here that he introduced the members of the club to instruments like compass thermometers, and finally he first surprised everyone by inventing the telescope.

In his own words ('Message of the Stars': The Message of the Stars, 1610 AD) - "A few months ago, news came that a Dutch resident had made a mirror that made distant things appear closer. Some Days ago, I received a letter from Jakob Badovar from Paris. The same discovery was mentioned in him. I myself got involved in the theory and construction of such a machine. "I made a tube and had two mirrors on both ends. Aye-glaze Kankev second Kanveks. Now, keeping an eye on one end, I saw things far away from this tube. Those things showed me three times closer and nine times larger. Then I made a second big bin, from which things far away appeared to be about a thousand times larger and 30 times closer. "

It was the first telescope in the world. Galileo rolled it towards the sky. Galileo was the first person to study the sky through a telescope. He turned the telescope to the moon. He saw mountains on the moon. Till that time people believed that the surface of the moon is smooth and shiny like shiny metal sphere. He then turned the telescope towards Sarya. Not only did he see spots (stigma) on the surface of the sun, but also saw that these spots become one and come back to the other side. The only reason for this could have been that the Sun also rotates on its axis.

The old doctrine emphasized that there are only seven planets in the world, including sun and moon, because the number seven is sacred. But Galileo saw the four moons of Jupiter with his 'devil's tube'. With this invention, old beliefs were contradicted, according to which only the Earth could be the center, which all celestial bodies revolve.

Sensational news of Galileo's invention spread throughout Europe. The Catholicism also had to become interested in his scientific discoveries. Emperor Henri of France requested Galileo to name a new star 'Henry'. The Pope called him and gave him a retirement salary.

In 1632, he published a book called 'Galileo Galilei's World Order'. That book, which was written on the basis of telescopic inventions, proved that Kopnikus was right. It is the Earth that revolves around the Sun moving in a wide orbit, making a year. It is the earth that rotates on its axis, from which the continuous sequence of day and night moves. The book spread sensation.

Galileo's friend also cautioned him - "Be very careful in your utterances, because if you show any similarity between this physical world and the moon, these religious people will say that you will see human habitation on the moon. You want to prove and then the debate will start how those people were born of Adam. "

But Galileo was held to be an atheist despite full caution and vigilance. He had to appear before the religious court of Rome. There this seventy-year-old man was forced to abandon his own thoughts by law. He had to write against his will-

"I confess my anti-religious crimes to Galileo Galilei, son of the late Visejo Galilei of Flores, age 70, standing before justice himself, bowing down before honorable members of the religious court. Keeping my hand, I swear that I believe in every word of this book and will keep faith in the future by the mercy of God. I accept that I have I have published a book in which I have written that the sun is fixed and the earth revolves around it. I accept these wrong thoughts before this holy court. I assure the court that in future in written or oral form such I will not preach thoughts. If I turn from my oath, (God save me) I will accept the punishment of Su. So, O God, comfort me! O holy scripture! I touch you, I swear by Galileo Galilei, assure you and take back my old thoughts — I now accept that The Earth does not revolve around the Sun ... "

                                          (Rome, June 22, 1633)

When his friends take him out of court, Galileo is said to have said in a slow voice - "Yet the earth revolves."

Even in such a situation, the Galileans may have said this last sentence, there is doubt. The people of the future said this and accepted it.

Religion did not get satisfaction from this only. This great scientist was placed under house arrest indefinitely in a small town called Archetri. Although he had strong orders from religion that he should abstain from scientific research in the future, he wrote a book on the principles of kinetics. In this book, he briefly introduced his research related to dynamics. He wrote this book in secret and got it published somehow.

But Galileo could never 'see' this last book of his, because he had lost his eyes and lost his eyesight while imprisoned. But he could attach the book to his chest in his last days. Lying on his deathbed, he had said- "This book is my masterpiece, because I have written it in the miserable clocks of my life." On January 8, 1642, at the age of 77, this great scientist always and forever Closed his eyes.

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